What technology is used for lithium battery recycling?

Release time:

2021-08-11 14:18

Lithium battery recyclingWhat technology is used?

At present, the recycling process of lithium battery recycling is mainly composed of three stages: pretreatment, secondary treatment of electrode materials and deep recovery. Each stage includes multiple treatment methods, which also leads to the complexity of lithium battery recycling. The pretreatment of waste batteries is mainly through crushing or screening out harmful sources, decomposition of waste batteries, to achieve simple separation and classification. The secondary treatment refers to the target treatment of the battery components and the dissolution of the internal mixture, and the commonly used methods are the acid dissolution method and the two-stage acid dissolution method/alkali dissolution method of the battery internal mixture. The deep recycling is to obtain the cathode material. Commonly used recovery processes include chemical recovery, physical recovery, biological recovery and combined methods. According to the treatment method, the chemical recovery process is divided into wet recovery technology and chemical recovery technology.

Lithium battery recyclingWhat technology is used?

In order to safely dispose of the waste batteries recovered from the lithium ion batteries, the waste lithium batteries are discharged before the pretreatment to keep the waste lithium batteries in a safe state. The pretreatment process mainly includes physical methods and broken boundaries (mechanical splitting of the battery shell, broken electrode materials, broken material classification, etc.).

In the wasteLithium battery recyclingIn the secondary treatment process, the electrode material is actually treated by dissolution-leaching out. The pretreated electrode material is dissolved into an acid-base solution, and the metal ions in the material are reduced to corresponding inorganic salts, such as metals or oxides and chlorides, which is the core of the entire process system.

After the secondary treatment of the lithium ion battery recovery, the leachate may contain various metal elements such as lithium, cobalt, nickel, manganese, copper, aluminum, and iron. Through a large number of research and experiments, the mature methods are solvent extraction, chemical precipitation, salting out, ion exchange, electrochemical method. From the perspective of the recovery rate and purity of the target product, the solvent extraction method has obvious advantages over the chemical deposition method in terms of mild conditions and recovery effect, but the solvent extraction method has high energy consumption and complex process. The recovery rate of chemical precipitation method is high, but the process is cumbersome. In the treatment of metal ions, metal ions with different chemical properties are treated by salting out, and ions with significantly different sizes can be treated by ion exchange or salting out. Due to the different properties of metal ions, the ion exchange method or electrochemical method is relatively simple, but the requirements for equipment are very high. In addition, the electrochemical process has high energy consumption and high recovery cost.

The future of wasteLithium battery recyclingTechnology research will be carried out in the direction of reducing costs, reducing secondary pollution, increasing the types of recycled materials, and improving the recovery rate. At the same time, the application of new methods of low energy and low pollution biological metallurgy in the recovery process of lithium batteries will also become a point of research and development in the future.

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