Pretreatment Technology for Recycling and Utilization of Waste Lithium Batteries
Through the introduction of the development status of lithium-ion batteries, the structure and composition of lithium-ion batteries, the necessity of recycling waste lithium-ion batteries, the pretreatment of waste lithium-ion batteries, the separation of active substances from current collectors, and the reuse of active substances, the development status of waste lithium battery recycling and reuse technologies is summarized, and the problems of different recycling technologies are found. Then, let's learn about the pretreatment technology of waste lithium battery recycling together!
The raw materials of lithium batteries are mainly cathode materials, anode materials, separators, and electrolytes. Cathode materials are the largest in the lithium battery market, accounting for about 30% of the cost of lithium batteries. The performance of the cathode material directly affects the performance of the lithium battery. The commonly used materials are lithium cobalt oxide, lithium manganate, lithium iron phosphate and ternary materials. Anode materials have advantages and disadvantages in both carbon and non-carbon anode materials. The diaphragm is a thin film that separates the positive and negative poles during the electrolytic reaction of the lithium battery to prevent the energy loss caused by the direct reaction in the electrolytic cell. The electrolyte plays the role of conducting ions between the positive and negative electrodes of the lithium battery, and is a guarantee for the lithium-ion battery to obtain the advantages of high voltage and high specific energy.
In addition, the cathode material of waste lithium battery has high economic value, especially cobalt, lithium cobalt oxide cathode material with high lithium content. Metal cobalt recovery is one of the main tasks of waste lithium ion battery recycling, through the leaching of valuable metal elements in the waste lithium battery, recovery of valuable cobalt, lithium and other elements, taking into account the battery shell, diaphragm and other materials recovery, comprehensive utilization of waste resources.
Why is the recycling of waste lithium batteries so concerned in recent years?
Power battery has the dual attributes of economy and environmental protection. No matter from the policy guidance, economic benefits or environmental protection requirements, we should pay attention to the fourth link-recycling!
Recycling and Pretreatment Technology of Waste Lithium Battery
In order to eliminate the safety hazards in the recycling process of lithium-ion batteries, pre-discharge is required. The main discharge method is the soaking method, which is simple and easy to use and is commonly used at present.
The recycling of used batteries first realizes the separation of active materials from aluminum foil, plastic and diaphragm and metal materials, and screens out valuable metal electrode materials that contribute to the leaching and recovery of cobalt, lithium and other elements. General pre-separation methods include manual decomposition, mechanical crushing, solvent stripping, high temperature heat treatment, etc.
mechanical crushing method:
Industrial recovery mostly adopts mechanical crushing method, which is directly or after peeling, and then mechanically crushing, winning or flotation separation of light substances such as plastics and diaphragms, and separating metal aluminum, copper and metal shells of batteries through magnetic separation and screening. The combination of mechanical crushing and ultrasonic vibration is used to separate electrode materials and metal substances. The basic process is: crushing, screening, ultrasonic and stirring. First, a positive electrode material of a used battery is subjected to a mechanical pulverization treatment, and then peeled off in an aqueous medium or an organic solvent in the process of ultrasonic vibration and stirring. The cathode material separated by this method, the crystal structure is not destroyed, has good electrochemical performance, and can be directly reused. Leaching and Recovery Technologies for Valuable Metals:
There are many studies on the method of leaching valuable metals from the positive electrode material obtained by pretreatment. Common are acid leaching, alkali leaching and other methods to recover and purify valuable metal elements. Typical recovery and purification methods include flotation, precipitation, solvent extraction and electrodeposition.
The above introduction is the waste lithium battery recycling pretreatment technology, if you need to know more, you can contact us at any time!