What is the current status of lithium battery recycling
The recovery technology of valuable metals from lithium batteries has become a hot research topic at home and abroad. And a brief evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of various methods. This paper analyzes the technical difficulties such as complex separation and purification process and easy to produce secondary pollution in the process of valuable metal recovery, explores the recovery process according to the current situation of valuable metal recovery technology of waste lithium ion battery, introduces the research methods of pretreatment and cathode material treatment in the process of valuable metal recovery, and then carries out the research on recovery process in depth, and points out that the laboratory research results should be industrialized, let's learn about the current situation of lithium battery recycling!
research status at home and abroad
Lithium battery recycling In practical applications, the process of extracting or separating non-ferrous metals from battery materials according to the physical properties of different metals (melting point, vapor pressure). The core technology of recovery is mainly divided into two categories: fire method and wet method. Fire method is heated under high temperature conditions, the recovery process can be roughly divided into three steps: battery pretreatment, active material and current collector separation, valuable metal recovery and reuse, wet method refers to the use of acid, alkali or organic solvent leaching of valuable metal components in the battery recovery process.
Pretreatment of lithium battery recycling
Lithium battery recycling has a margin. In order to prevent accidents during battery removal, the battery is discharged before removal. Liquid nitrogen is used to pretreat the battery at low temperature, and the battery is safely broken at -198 temperature, which requires higher equipment. The treatment methods include physical discharge method and chemical discharge method. The physical discharge method mainly uses low-temperature forced discharge, which is suitable for small batch production, and the chemical discharge method mainly uses electrolytic discharge.
2. Decomposition and crushing
Lithium battery recycling in the laboratory, due to the small size of the battery, often manual decomposition, separation of the battery. In actual production, the battery is often decomposed by mechanical crushing. The metal ions are extracted from the solution in the form of salts, oxides, etc. by means of ion exchange, precipitation, adsorption, etc. Wet recovery technology process is more complex, a method of mechanical crushing is wet. The wet method uses various acid-base solutions as the moving medium to transfer metal ions from the electrode material to the leaching solution. A scientist uses dilute alkaline water to soak the battery and tries to crush it. This method can reduce the amount of HF generated, but cannot effectively recover the fluorine-containing electrolyte, which is likely to cause secondary pollution. However, the recovery rate of valuable metals is high. At present, it is mainly the technology to deal with waste nickel-hydrogen batteries and lithium-ion batteries. The other way is dry. The dry process mainly includes mechanical separation and high temperature pyrolysis (or high temperature metallurgy).
Recycling of waste lithium batteries
1) In the process of degradation and crushing of waste lithium-ion batteries, the safe and effective decomposition and crushing of waste lithium-ion batteries is a prerequisite for the recycling of waste batteries, and the separation effect is not ideal.
2) At present, in the research process of lithium battery recovery of valuable metals, it causes certain harm to people and the environment, and the recovery process of valuable metals is mainly wet. The use of chemical substances such as acid and alkali in this method will produce harmful waste gas and waste liquid, and the secondary pollution in the process is also an important problem to be solved.
3) In the process of recycling valuable metals in lithium batteries, the recovery of valuable metals in cathode materials is mainly studied. Ignoring the negative and electrolyte. At present, we should look for alternatives to these materials, especially the electrolyte is mostly composed of high-concentration organic solvents, electrolyte lithium salts, additives and other raw materials. These substances are toxic and pollute the environment and reduce the harm of the electrolyte to the environment.
The above is the current situation of lithium battery recycling, if you need to know more, you can contact us at any time!