Three Methods of Waste Lithium Battery Recycling Technology

Release time:

2022-06-23 09:36

With the rapid development of the new energy industry, the use of lithium-ion batteries has ushered in explosive growth. The life of lithium batteries is generally 3 to 5 years, so recycling waste lithium-ion batteries is essential. The recycling technology of waste lithium batteries mainly includes three methods: physical separation, biochemical treatment and chemical treatment.

Physical separation includes flotation method and grinding method, which has good separation effect and high metal recovery rate. Biochemical treatment uses microorganisms to decompose battery materials and selectively leach certain elements, but it is not mature and has no practical application. Chemical treatment methods are mainly divided into painting process, wet process.

The wet process mainly uses acid or alkali to soak the electrode material, dissolve it into a salt solution, and then use precipitation extraction and other methods to separate and purify the metal elements in the solution. The wet process can be divided into three parts: pretreatment, acid leaching or alkali leaching, and metal element separation.

Environmental protection lithium battery recycling equipment

The new physical separation process sends the pretreated battery to a hammer mill through a conveyor belt, coarsely crushed, and 70% of the black powder in the material is separated by a vibrating screening machine. The remaining material is passed through a magnetic separator to separate the iron from the material. The conveyor sends the sorted materials to 2 sets, which are crushed again, and then 25% of the black powder in the materials is separated by the vibrating screening machine, and the remaining materials are crushed by the high-speed cyclone crusher, and the vibrating screening machine separates the materials. Copper powder and aluminum powder. A dust collection device is installed on the treatment ship, and the dust on the entire treatment ship is collected by negative pressure. After vibration screening, it enters the pulse vacuum cleaner and spray tower to purify the exhaust gas and meet the emission standards at high altitude.

The wet process mainly uses acid or alkali to soak the electrode material, dissolve it into a salt solution, and then use precipitation extraction and other methods to separate and purify the metal elements in the solution. The wet process can be divided into three parts: pretreatment, acid leaching or alkali leaching, and metal element separation.

Among the three recycling methods, the drawing process is relatively simple, but the selective recovery of valuable metals cannot be realized, the energy consumption is large, and it is easy to cause secondary pollution to the environment. The technical route of the wet process is relatively complex and has advantages in the recycling of waste materials, but a large amount of acid, alkali, and organic solvents need to be used in the treatment process, and the emissions of the three wastes are large.

The physical separation process of lithium battery recycling treatment equipment has two advantages. Using this method, pure electrode materials can be separated.

At this stage, China is facing a large number of new energy vehicle waste power battery retirement, power battery recycling rate is low and related industries waste power battery demand throughput and other problems. If it is not handled properly, it will have many negative effects on China's new energy automobile industry chain and social economy. Judging from the growth trend of waste power batteries, the total number of waste power batteries in China will rise by 300000 tons in 2018 and by about 500000 tons in 2020. Due to the imperfect power battery recycling management system, the recycling rate of power batteries in China is low.

From the perspective of ecological environment protection, if the power battery recovery rate still maintains today's adequacy, it will be a great challenge to the ecological environment protection to inject a large number of waste power batteries into individual small processing plants or waste. From the perspective of the requirements of other industries, the number of electric vehicles in my country has exceeded 0.1 billion, and the number of low-speed electric vehicles has also reached millions. The requirements for lithium iron phosphate power batteries are increasing. If the recycling requirements are not met, the entire industry chain will form a challenging situation.

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