What is the status and significance of power battery recycling?
Foreign countries started earlier in the recycling of power batteries. Countries have adopted different treatment methods for different waste batteries, and the relevant regulations mainly include lead acid and nickel. The power battery recycling system in the United States is relatively complete, and there are used battery treatment plants based on pyrometallurgical processes. Japan began to recycle used batteries on a large scale in 1993. At present, all lead-acid batteries for automobiles have been recycled, and the recovery rate of other secondary batteries is close to 90%. Germany began to recycle used batteries in October 1998.
On May 2, 2007, the EU adopted a policy requiring mandatory recycling of used batteries from 2008. Starting in 2009, batteries sold in the European Union show service life. By 2012, 25% of my waste batteries in the EU will be recycled to 45% by 2016. In addition, batteries containing more than 0.0005 per cent mercury and more than 0 per cent cadmium will be banned from sale in the EU.
In recent years, China has some regulations and policies on recycling waste batteries, for example, regulations on limiting the mercury content in battery products. Approved by the Environmental Protection Administration issued on October 9, 2003? The technical policy for preventing waste battery pollution clearly stipulates the focus of controlling waste battery pollution, including mercury, nickel, and lead acid. The focus of power battery recycling is nickel, lithium ion, lead acid, silver oxide, etc. At present, one-time centralized recycling of waste batteries that meet national mercury content requirements is not encouraged.
The recycling of power batteries in our country has a certain effect. The main problem now is the difficulty of recycling. People have not yet had the habit of recycling waste batteries. There is a lack of effective treatment and reuse measures; the important problems of treatment technology have not been fundamentally solved.
The importance of power battery recycling is the secondary resource that can be recycled.
Taking zinc-manganese batteries, which account for 92.5 of the total number of batteries in our country, as an example, the weight of No.1 waste zinc-manganese battery is about 70g, including 5.1g of carbon rod, 7.0g of zinc skin, 25g of manganese powder, 0.5g of copper cap and 32g of others. Among them, the quality of zinc, discharge manganese dioxide, iron, copper, mercury and graphite accounts for about 75% of the total battery, and only zinc, discharge manganese dioxide and iron account for 70%, which can be used as the main object of resource utilization.
According to the data of China's battery production in 2000 provided by the China Battery Industry Association, the production of manganese-zinc batteries alone consumes 150000 t of zinc metal, 270000 t of discharge manganese dioxide, 8000 t of copper metal, 160000 t of steel and graphite every year. These metals and non-metals are taken from China's mineral resources.
According to estimates by relevant departments, the waste batteries produced in my country each year can recover 120000 tons of zinc, 20000 tons of copper and a large number of other usable materials after treatment. It can be seen that the recycling and recycling of used batteries is in line with China's sustainable development strategy.