What are the types of batteries?

Release time:

2012-04-02 00:00

1. A battery: used up and lost, unable to repeat the user.

Carbon zinc battery, alkaline battery, paste type zinc manganese battery, cardboard zinc manganese battery, alkaline zinc manganese battery, button battery (button type zinc silver battery, button type lithium manganese battery, button type zinc manganese battery), zinc air battery, lithium manganese battery, mercury battery.

According to the use of isolation layer, it is divided into paste type and plate type battery, and plate type is divided into C type (ammonium type) and P type (zinc type) cardboard battery according to different electrolyte solutions.

In the traditional paste zinc-manganese dry battery, the positive electrode material is natural manganese dioxide with low activity, the separator is a paste separation layer of starch and flour, the electrolyte is ammonium chloride and zinc chloride aqueous solution based on H4CL, and the negative electrode is a zinc cylinder. Its discharge performance is generally poor, its capacity is low, and the battery is easy to leak at the end of use, but its price is cheap.

Type C (Ammonium) cardboard battery is based on the paste battery with slurry layer paper instead of paste paper, not only the positive electrode filling amount increased by about 30%, but also 30-70% of highly active manganese instead of natural manganese, so the capacity can be improved, the scope of use can be expanded, and it is mostly used in small current discharge occasions, such as watches, remote controls, radios, flashlights and other occasions.

P-type (zinc-type) cardboard battery using zinc chloride-based electrolyte, cathode materials are all highly active manganese powder, such as electrolytic manganese, active manganese, etc., its leak-proof performance is much higher than the paste and C- type batteries, used for high current continuous discharge occasions, such as for cameras, flash, tape recorders, shavers, electric toys.

Cylindrical alkaline zinc-manganese battery alkaline, also known as alkaline manganese battery, commonly known as alkaline battery, is the best variety in the zinc-manganese battery series. In the mid-20th century, it was developed on the basis of zinc-manganese batteries and was an improved type of zinc-manganese batteries. The battery uses an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the electrolyte, and adopts a negative electrode structure opposite to that of the zinc-manganese battery. The negative electrode is a paste colloid inside, and copper nails are used as the current collector. The positive electrode is outside. The active material and conductive material are pressed into a ring and connected to the battery shell. The positive and negative electrodes are separated by a special diaphragm.

The shell is generally made of 08F nickel-plated steel strip by cold rolling and stamping, and also serves as the positive electrode current collector. The electrolytic manganese dioxide positive electrode material is pressed into a ring and tightly attached to the inner wall of the cylinder to ensure good contact. The negative electrode is made of powdered zinc particles and made into paste, which is located in the middle of the battery, and a negative electrode current collector (the negative electrode is usually a copper nail) is inserted between the bottom and the negative electrode, the positive electrode is separated by a separator (isolation layer), and the outside is separated by a nylon or polypropylene sealing ring. At the same time, the battery is sealed. The outside of the battery is almost the same as that of a general battery.

2. Secondary battery: rechargeable and reusable

Secondary alkaline zinc-manganese batteries, nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries, nickel-hydrogen rechargeable batteries, lithium rechargeable batteries, lead-acid batteries, solar cells. Lead-acid batteries can be divided into: open lead-acid batteries, fully enclosed lead-acid batteries.

  镍镉电池(Ni-Cd ) chemical batteries (secONdary batteries

Ni-MH battery Ni-MH

Lithium-ion battery Li-ion, lithium batteries

lead-acid battery lead batteries

Other

Physical battery physical energy

Solar cellbatteries

microbial battery

polymer battery

Any battery consists of four basic components, the four main components are two electrodes of different materials, electrolyte, separator and housing.

3. Green battery

Refers to a class of high-performance, pollution-free batteries that have been put into use and are being developed in recent years, including nickel-metal hydride batteries and lithium-ion batteries that have been put into use at present, and mercury-free alkaline zinc-manganese primary batteries that are being promoted for use, and Fuel cells, solar cells (photovoltaic cells), etc.

4. Lead-acid battery

In 1859, the French plant (Plante) found that by the positive plate, negative plate, electrolyte, separator, container (battery) and other five basic parts. Battery made of lead dioxide as positive active material, lead as negative active material, sulfuric acid as electrolyte, microporous rubber, sintered polyvinyl chloride, glass fiber, polypropylene and other separators.

5. Cadmium-nickel batteries and metal hydride batteries

Both use nickel oxide or nickel hydroxide as the positive electrode, an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide as the electrolyte solution, and metal cadmium or metal hydride as the negative electrode. Metal hydride battery for the late 1980 s, the use of hydrogen absorption alloy and the release of hydrogen reaction of electrochemical reversible invention, is the leading product of small secondary batteries.

6. Lithium-ion battery

Refers to the metal lithium or lithium compounds as the active material of the battery is known as lithium battery, divided into a lithium battery and secondary lithium battery.

A battery made of a carbon material that can intercalate and deintercalate lithium ions instead of pure lithium as a negative electrode, a lithium compound as a positive electrode, and a mixed electrolyte as an electrolyte.

The positive electrode material of lithium-ion battery is usually composed of lithium active compound, and the negative electrode is carbon with special molecular structure. The main component of the common positive electrode material is LiCoO2. When charging, the potential added to the two poles of the battery forces the compound of the positive electrode to release lithium ions, which are embedded in the carbon of the negative electrode molecular arrangement in a lamellar structure. During discharge, lithium ions are precipitated from the carbon of the lamellar structure and recombined with the compound of the positive electrode. An electric current is generated by the movement of lithium ions.

Although the principle of chemical reaction is very simple, in actual industrial production, there are many practical problems to be considered: the material of the positive electrode needs additives to maintain the activity of multiple charging and discharging, and the material of the negative electrode needs to be designed at the molecular structure level to accommodate more lithium ions; In addition to maintaining stability, the electrolyte filled between the positive and negative electrodes also needs to have good conductivity to reduce the internal resistance of the battery.

Although the lithium battery has almost no memory effect, the capacity of the lithium battery will still decrease after repeated charging and discharging, mainly due to the change of the positive and negative materials themselves. From the molecular level, the hole structure of the positive and negative electrodes that accommodate lithium ions will gradually collapse and block; from a chemical point of view, the positive and negative materials are actively passivated, and side reactions occur to generate stable other compounds. Physically, there will also be gradual peeling of the positive electrode material, which ultimately reduces the number of lithium ions in the battery that can move freely during charging and discharging.

Overcharge and over-discharge will cause permanent damage to the positive and negative electrodes of lithium batteries. From the molecular level, it can be intuitively understood that over-discharge will cause excessive release of lithium ions from the negative carbon and cause the sheet structure to collapse. Too many lithium ions will be hard stuffed into the negative carbon structure, and some of the lithium ions will no longer be released. This is why lithium batteries are usually equipped with a control circuit for charging and discharging.

7. Fuel cells

A device that uses a fuel (such as hydrogen or hydrogen-containing fuel) and an oxidant (such as pure oxygen or oxygen in air) directly connected to generate electricity. It has the characteristics of high efficiency, electrochemical reaction conversion efficiency of more than 40%, and no pollution gas discharge.

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