Who invented the battery?
In 1780, Galvani (Luigi Galvani, September 9, 1737-December 4, 1798), a professor of anatomy at the University of Polonia, Italy, did anatomical research on frog leg muscle movement. He found in the experiment that if the frog leg nerve was touched by a metal scalpel while the motor was discharging, the frog leg muscle immediately contracted. In order to find out the reason for this phenomenon, he unexpectedly found in further experiments, if two metals are used to contact the tendons and muscles of the frog's leg, the frog's leg will twitch when the other ends of the two metals touch each other. Galvani believes that this is caused by the existence of a "neuroelectrical fluid" in frogs, which can make nerves and muscles active, and the brain is an important organ that secretes electrofluid.
Italian physicist Voda (Alessandro Vlota February 18, 1745-March 5, 1827) studied the discovery of Galvani in 1792. He found that the generation of electric current does not require animal tissues. In 1793, he denied the existence of animal electricity and believed that the electricity discovered by Galvani came from the contact of two different metals. He believed that the twitching of frog legs was a sensitive response to electric current, this current is due to the insertion of two metals in the solution provided by the muscle, and form a circuit.
In 1799, copper sheets, paper sheets soaked in salt water and zinc sheets were overlapped in turn, creating the earliest Voda reactor to obtain continuous current. In 1800, he published the battery principle discovered between 1795 and 1796. In 1801, he demonstrated the Vorda reactor for Napoleon I. Napoleon awarded him a gold medal and made him a count.
In 1803, the German chemist Ritter made a battery.
In 1836, the British chemist J.F. Danier made the first classical primary battery. One disadvantage of voltaic stacks is that the current decreases rapidly due to polarization. The battery he discovered was a multi-porous clay pot (starting with an animal membrane) that separated the electrode copper and zinc rods immersed in a copper sulfate solution. It can provide a stable current for a longer period of time than previous batteries.
In 1859, French physicist Prandtl produced the first practical lead-acid battery. He consists of two lead skins rolled into a spiral, separated by an eraser, immersed in a 10% sulfuric acid solution, and then fed with electric current to plate one of the skins and the other to a rough porous surface. This battery had a higher electromotive force than any battery at the time. However, due to the complex and lengthy processing and molding process, it is difficult to mass production and has not received attention.
In 1865, the French chemist Le Crancher made the first dry battery. He used a conductive ammonium chloride solution, zinc and graphite as electrodes, and manganese dioxide as a depolarization agent. Such a battery is inconvenienced by the use of an ammonium chloride solution.
In 1881, French chemist C.A. Fore reformed Pelant's lead-acid battery. He avoided the molding process, the direct coating on the lead plate, so that the lead battery caused the interest of the business community, quickly get mass production, in the automobile, radio equipment, electrochemical experiment process has been applied, has become an important power supply commonly used.
In 1888, chemist Casnier improved Le Crancher's battery. He replaced the solution with moist ammonium chloride, and replaced the container with zinc skin, which was widely used and easy to use.