Waste Battery Pollution Prevention Technology Policy
(This document is jointly issued by the State Environmental Protection Administration, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Construction, the Ministry of Science and Technology, and the Ministry of Commerce)
The environmental protection bureaus (departments), planning commissions, economic and trade commissions (economic commissions), construction departments, science and technology departments, and foreign economic and trade commissions (departments) of all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government:
In order to implement the Law on the Prevention and Control of Environmental Pollution by the People's Republic of China Solid Waste, protect the environment, safeguard human health, and guide the prevention and control of waste battery pollution, the Technical Policy on the Prevention and Control of Waste Battery Pollution is hereby approved and issued, please follow it.
Annex: Technical Policy for Pollution Prevention and Control of Waste Batteries
1. General Provisions
1.1 In order to guide the development of waste battery environmental management and treatment and resource regeneration technology, standardize waste battery treatment and resource regeneration behavior, prevent environmental pollution, and promote the sustainable development of society and economy, in accordance with the "the People's Republic of China Solid Waste Pollution Prevention and Control Law" And other relevant laws, regulations, policies and standards, formulate this technical policy. This technical policy is revised in time with the development of social economy and technology level.
1.2 Waste batteries referred to in this Technical Policy include the following wastes:
Various primary batteries (including button batteries) and rechargeable batteries that have lost their use value and have been discarded;
Lead-acid batteries and other batteries that have lost their use value and have been discarded;
Special battery packs for various electrical appliances that have lost their use value and have been discarded, and the single cells therein;
The unqualified products, scrap products, expired products, etc. produced during the production, transportation and sales of the above-mentioned batteries;
Mixed waste such as mixed scraps produced in the production process of the above-mentioned batteries;
Other abandoned chemical power sources.
1.3 This technical policy applies to the technical selection of pollution prevention and control in the whole process of classification, collection, transportation, comprehensive utilization, storage, treatment and disposal of waste batteries, and guides the planning, project approval, site selection, design, construction, operation and management of corresponding facilities, and guides the development of related industries.
The pollution control of 1.4 waste batteries should follow the basic principles of battery product life cycle analysis, actively promote clean production, and implement the principles of whole process management and total control of pollutants.
The focus of pollution control of 1.5 waste batteries is waste mercury-containing batteries, waste cadmium-nickel batteries, and waste lead-acid batteries. Gradually reduce to eventually eliminate the use of mercury in primary battery production, safe, efficient, low-cost collection, recycling or safe disposal of waste nickel-cadmium batteries, waste lead-acid batteries and other environmentally harmful waste batteries.
1.6 Waste mercuric oxide batteries, waste cadmium-nickel batteries and waste lead-acid batteries are hazardous wastes and should be managed in accordance with relevant hazardous waste management regulations and standards.
1.7 Encourage the development of waste battery pollution ways, pollution laws and the development of new batteries with little impact on the environment, and determine the corresponding pollution prevention and control measures.
1.8 Through the publicity and popularization of waste battery pollution prevention and control knowledge, improve public environmental awareness, promote the public to have a correct understanding of waste battery management and its possible environmental hazards, and realize the scientific, reasonable and effective management of waste batteries.
People's governments at all levels in the 1.9 should formulate encouraging economic policies and other measures to speed up the construction of systems and facilities for the classified collection, storage, resource regeneration, treatment and disposal of waste batteries that meet the requirements of environmental protection, and promote the prevention and control of waste battery pollution.
1.10 This technical policy follows the general principles of the Hazardous Waste Pollution Prevention Technical Policy.
2. Production and use of batteries
2.1 formulate technical standards for battery classification and identification to facilitate the classification and collection, resource utilization and disposal of waste batteries. Battery classification identification shall include the following:
Recycling identification of batteries that need to be recycled;
Identification of the type of battery to be recycled;
Identification of the content of harmful components in the battery.
2.2 battery manufacturers and businesses that entrust other manufacturers to produce and use batteries with their own trademarks shall mark the batteries they produce in accordance with national standards.
Manufacturers of appliances that use special built-in batteries should mark their products with battery classification marks in accordance with national standards.
Importers of 2.3 batteries should require foreign manufacturers (or distributors) to mark their batteries exported to China in accordance with Chinese national standards, or the importer should paste the marks marked in accordance with Chinese national standards on their imported batteries.
2.4 the use of batteries in the design of appliances should be easy to remove the battery (or battery pack) structure, and in its instruction manual to specify the use of the battery and installation and removal methods, as well as the disposal of the battery after disposal.
The 2.5 prohibits the production and sale of mercury oxide batteries in accordance with the relevant national regulations. According to the relevant provisions of the State, the production and sale of zinc-manganese and alkaline zinc-manganese batteries with mercury content greater than 0.025 per cent of the battery quality is prohibited; the production of alkaline zinc-manganese batteries with mercury content greater than 0.0001 per cent has been stopped since January 1, 2005. Gradually increase the proportion of alkaline zinc-manganese batteries with a mercury content of less than 0.0001 per cent in primary batteries; gradually reduce the production and sales of paste batteries, and ultimately achieve the elimination of paste batteries.
Relying on technological progress, 2.6 restricts the use of cadmium, lead and other harmful elements in batteries by formulating standards for the highest content of cadmium and lead in batteries. Encourage the development of lithium-ion and nickel-metal hydride batteries (referred to as nickel-hydrogen batteries) and other rechargeable batteries, replace nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries, reduce the production and use of nickel-cadmium batteries, and eventually eliminate nickel-cadmium batteries in the civilian market.
2.7 encourage the development of low-consumption, high-energy, low-pollution battery products and production processes, the use of technology. Encourage the use of recycled materials in battery production.
2.8 strengthening publicity and education to encourage and support consumers to use high-energy alkaline zinc-manganese batteries with a mercury content of less than 0.0001 per cent; encouraging and supporting consumers to use rechargeable batteries such as nickel-hydrogen batteries and lithium-ion batteries as an alternative to nickel-cadmium batteries; and encouraging and supporting consumers to refuse to buy and use inferior and counterfeit battery products and battery products that are not properly marked with the relevant labels;
The collection of 3.1 waste batteries focuses on waste rechargeable batteries such as cadmium-nickel batteries, nickel-hydrogen batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and lead-acid batteries (hereinafter referred to as waste rechargeable batteries) and waste button-type primary batteries such as silver oxide (hereinafter referred to as Waste button battery).
The recycling of 3.2 waste primary batteries shall be carried out prudently by the responsible unit. At present, in the absence of technical and economic conditions for effective recycling, the centralized collection of waste primary batteries that have reached the national low-mercury or mercury-free requirements is not encouraged.
3.3 The following units shall bear the responsibility for recycling waste rechargeable batteries and waste button batteries:
manufacturers of rechargeable batteries and button batteries;
Importers of rechargeable batteries and button batteries;
Manufacturers of products using rechargeable batteries or button batteries;
Businesses that commission other battery manufacturers to produce rechargeable batteries and button batteries using their own trademarks.
3.4 The above-mentioned units that undertake the responsibility of recycling waste rechargeable batteries and waste button batteries shall guide and organize the establishment of a recycling system for waste batteries in accordance with the sales channels of their own commodities, or entrust relevant recycling systems to effectively recycle. Sellers of rechargeable batteries, button batteries and electrical appliances using these batteries shall set up sorting and recycling facilities for waste batteries at their sales offices to recycle them, and set up obvious marks in accordance with relevant standards.
The 3.5 encourages consumers to send waste rechargeable batteries and waste button batteries to the corresponding waste battery recycling facilities in battery or electrical appliance sales stores for easy recycling by sellers.
The batch of waste batteries recovered by 3.6 shall be classified and sent to factories (facilities) with corresponding qualifications for resource regeneration or harmless treatment and disposal.
Special collection devices with corresponding classification marks shall be used for the collection and packaging of 3.7 waste batteries.
4.1 waste batteries should be collected and transported according to their types in special containers that meet national standards.
4.2 The containers for storing and shipping waste batteries should be designed according to the characteristics of waste batteries, which are not easy to be damaged or deformed, and the materials used can effectively prevent leakage and diffusion. Containers with waste batteries must be labeled with classification marks required by national standards.
The 4.3 shall ensure the structural integrity of the waste batteries before and during the packaging and transportation of the waste batteries, and shall not crush or crush the waste batteries to prevent the leakage and pollution of harmful components in the batteries.
The transboundary movement of 4.4 waste batteries belonging to hazardous wastes shall comply with the requirements of the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal; the domestic movement of bulk waste batteries shall comply with the Management Measures for the Transfer of Hazardous Wastes and other relevant regulations.
4.5 Environmental protection administrative departments at all levels shall, in accordance with the national and local hazardous waste transfer management measures, effectively control the flow of batch waste batteries, prohibit the waste batteries from being discarded into the environment in the process of transfer, and prohibit the waste batteries that need to be collected in the 3.1 from being mixed into domestic garbage.
5.1 The storage of waste batteries mentioned in this policy refers to the storage behavior in the process of collection, transportation and resource regeneration of batch waste batteries and before treatment and disposal, including temporary stacking before determining the treatment and disposal method of waste batteries.
5.2 The storage facilities for batch waste batteries shall be constructed and managed in accordance with the relevant requirements of the Standard for Pollution Control of Hazardous Waste Storage (GB18597-2001).
It is 5.3 forbidden to stack waste batteries in the open air to avoid rain and water.
6. Resource regeneration
Resource recycling plants that 6.1 waste batteries should focus on the recycling of waste rechargeable batteries and waste button batteries, and prudently build resource recycling plants for waste primary batteries.
The construction of 6.2 waste battery resource regeneration facilities should go through sufficient technical and economic demonstration to ensure that the operation of the facilities will not cause secondary pollution to the environment and to recycle resources economically and effectively.
Resource recycling plants 6.3 waste rechargeable batteries and waste button batteries shall be managed in accordance with the requirements of comprehensive utilization of hazardous waste facilities, and can only be operated after obtaining a hazardous waste business license. Recycling plants for waste primary batteries and mixed waste batteries shall be managed with reference to the requirements of hazardous waste comprehensive utilization facilities, and shall operate after obtaining a hazardous waste business license.
6.4 The site selection of the waste battery renewable resources factory shall be carried out according to the site selection requirements in the "Hazardous Waste Incineration Pollution Control Standard" (GB18484-2001).
6.5 any waste battery resource recycling plant in the production process, mercury, cadmium, lead, zinc, nickel and other harmful components of the recovery and safe disposal of the amount of disposal, should not be less than 95% of the total amount of this harmful component in the waste battery.
6.6 Any waste battery dismantling, crushing and sorting process before the resource regeneration process shall be carried out in a closed structure, and the exhaust gas shall be purified and discharged after reaching the standard. The waste batteries shall not be broken manually or in the open air to prevent the discharge or escape of harmful substances in the waste batteries, resulting in secondary pollution.
6.7 The pyrometallurgical process is used to regenerate waste battery resources. The smelting process should be carried out under closed negative pressure conditions to prevent harmful gases and dust from escaping. The collected gases should be treated and discharged after reaching the standard.
6.8 the use of hydrometallurgical process for waste battery resource regeneration, the process should be carried out in a closed structure, the exhaust gas must be dehumidified and purified, and discharged after reaching the standard.
Exhaust gas purification system, alarm system and emergency treatment device shall be set up for the resource regeneration device 6.9 waste batteries.
6.10 The exhaust emissions of waste battery resource recycling plants shall refer to the implementation of the "Hazardous Waste Incineration Pollution Control Standards" (GB18484-2001) atmospheric pollutant emission limits.
6.11 waste battery resources regeneration plant should be set up sewage purification facilities. The wastewater discharged by the factory shall meet the requirements of the Comprehensive Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996) and other corresponding standards.
Industrial solid wastes (including smelting residues, waste gas purification ash, waste water treatment sludge, sorting residues, etc.) generated by 6.12 waste battery resource regeneration plants shall be managed and disposed of as hazardous wastes.
The working environment of the personnel in the 6.13 waste battery resource recycling plant shall meet the requirements of relevant national standards such as the Hygienic Standard for the Design of Industrial Enterprises (GBZ1?2002) and the Occupational Exposure Limits for Hazardous Factors in the Workplace (GBZ2?2002).
6.14 Encourage scientific and technological research on the regeneration of waste battery resources, develop economical and efficient waste battery resource regeneration processes, and improve the resource regeneration rate of waste batteries.
7. Treatment and disposal
7.1 In cities and regions where domestic waste is incinerated and composted, it is advisable to carry out classified collection of waste to prevent all kinds of waste batteries from entering the waste incineration device and waste composting fermentation device with other domestic waste.
It is 7.2 forbidden to incinerate all kinds of waste batteries collected.
7.3, for the primary or mixed waste batteries that have been collected and have no economic and effective means for recycling, they can be safely disposed of or stored in landfills with reference to the safe disposal and storage requirements of hazardous wastes. In areas where there is no safe landfill for hazardous waste, special landfill units may be built in accordance with the requirements for safe landfill for hazardous waste, or special waste battery storage facilities may be built in accordance with the requirements of the Hazardous Waste Storage Pollution Control Standards (GB18597-2001), and waste batteries may be put into plastic containers for disposal or storage in special facilities. The use of plastic containers should have corrosion resistance, pressure, sealing characteristics, must be intact, landfill disposal should also meet the strength requirements of landfill operations.
7.4 In order to facilitate the recycling of waste batteries in the future, the collected waste batteries should be classified into landfills or stored.
7.5 Before and during landfill disposal of waste batteries, as well as during storage operations, the waste batteries shall not be disassembled, rolled and other crushing operations to ensure the integrity of the shell of the waste batteries and reduce and prevent the leakage of harmful substances.
8. Waste lead-acid battery pollution prevention and control
8.1 The collection, transportation, dismantling, regeneration and smelting of waste lead-acid batteries shall not only meet the requirements of the first chapters, but also comply with the requirements of this chapter.
8.2 Waste lead-acid batteries shall be recycled and shall not be disposed of by other means.
8.3 Waste lead-acid batteries shall be managed as hazardous waste. The collection, transportation, dismantling and recycling of waste lead-acid batteries shall obtain a hazardous waste business license before they can operate or operate.
8.4 encourage centralized recycling of waste lead-acid batteries.
The 8.5 shall keep the shell intact during the collection and transportation of waste lead-acid batteries, and take necessary measures to prevent acid leakage.
The collection and transportation units of waste lead-acid batteries shall formulate necessary emergency measures to ensure that accidents can effectively reduce or prevent environmental pollution in the process of collection and transportation.
8.6 The recycling and dismantling of waste lead-acid batteries shall be carried out in special facilities. In the process of recycling and dismantling, plastics, lead plates, lead-containing materials and waste acid should be recycled and treated separately.
8.7 Waste acid from waste lead-acid batteries shall be collected and disposed of and shall not be discharged into sewers or into the environment. Can not take the shell, acid directly smelting waste lead-acid battery.
8.8 The recycling and smelting enterprises of waste lead-acid batteries shall meet the following requirements:
The lead recovery rate is more than 95%;
The production scale of recycled lead is more than 5000 tons/year. After the issuance of this technical policy, the production scale of new enterprises should be greater than 10000 tons/year;
The process of regenerating lead adopts closed smelting equipment and is produced under negative pressure to prevent exhaust gas from escaping;
It has complete purification facilities for waste water and waste gas, and the discharge of waste water and waste gas meets relevant national standards;
The dust and sludge produced in the process of recycled lead smelting are properly and safely disposed.
Phasing out of the basic conditions can not meet the above-mentioned indigenous smelting process and small recycled lead enterprises.
8.9 Dust and sludge collected during lead smelting and regeneration of waste lead-acid batteries shall be treated and disposed of in accordance with hazardous waste management requirements.