How do a large number of used power batteries flow to informal channels?
china energy storage network:If the power battery recycling is not in place will bring what kind of consequences?600000 liters of water, a battery in the soil rot, can make 1 square meters of land lost use value.
FromSince the implementation of the demonstration operation of "ten cities and thousand vehicles" of new energy vehicles in 2009, the number of new energy vehicles in China has been increasing, and the production of power batteries is increasing day by day. Since 2013, China's electric passenger cars have entered a period of rapid promotion, and the installed capacity of power batteries has also risen. The "China Retired Power Battery Recycling Technology and Industry Development Report" shows that before 2015, the total amount of power batteries in my country was less than 20000 tons, and in 2015 it exceeded 300000 tons. In 2018, it increased 4.2 times from 2015 to about 1.25 million tons.
With the sustained and rapid development of the industry, a large number of power batteries have entered the phase-out period. International Market Research AgencyThe latest research report released by Markets and Markets shows that the lithium-ion battery recycling market in the Asia-Pacific region is expected to grow at the highest compound annual growth rate from 2019 to 2024. At the same time, China is one of the largest markets for lithium-ion battery recycling in applications such as electric vehicles and energy storage.
In order to standardize the power battery scrap recycling, China has developed a power battery recycling enterprise."Whitelist" system, the enterprises entering the list have strong strength to deal with waste power batteries, so as to reduce the environmental pollution of waste power batteries as much as possible. However, the reality is not moving towards the expected track, with the increase in the amount of power battery scrap, the report on the power battery recycling chaos has never stopped. The person in charge of a number of "whitelist" companies also told the reporter of China Automobile News that because of the irregular market, it is difficult for them to receive used power batteries. It is estimated that the recycling volume of "whitelist" companies accounts for about 30% of the scrap volume.%.
Where did a lot of used batteries go this year?In January, a reporter from "China Automobile News", accompanied by a person with knowledge of the situation, Zhang Ming (pseudonym), walked into Dongguan, Guangdong, one of the hardest hit areas for illegal recycling of power batteries, to conduct a field investigation. Through field investigation, the reporter found that a large number of waste power batteries are flowing to informal channels, and has formed a huge industrial chain.
■ wanton breeding of illegal recycling enterprises
Zhang Ming told the reporter of China Automobile News that the informal recycling of power batteries in the country is mainly concentrated in Xinxiang, Henan, Yichun, Jiangxi, Meizhou, Guangdong, and Dongguan. Among these gathering places, Dongguan is not the largest, but The chaos of recycling is shocking enough.
Many industrial parks in Dongguan are occupied by informal power battery recycling enterprises. If Zhang Ming does not guide, it will be difficult for reporters to find these recycling places.
The reporter and Zhang Ming came to an industrial park in the southern urban area of Dongguan. It used to be the production base of an enterprise. At present, all the production lines have been evacuated and transformed into a gathering place for battery recycling. Entering the park, the reporter saw that the first floor of the production building was divided into multiple lattice shops, and each shop was a recycling company. There is not much difference between the pavement of the rolling shutter door and the front room on the street. The only difference is that there is no sign on the lintel.
Reporters walked into a shop and found that boxes of soft-pack batteries were neatly stacked on the ground, covering an area of aboutThe 90-square-meter shop is full of recycled soft-pack batteries. Judging from the size, these batteries are not mobile phone batteries, but should all be soft-pack power batteries. The reporter noticed that several boxes were affixed with "qualified" seals. Zhang Ming told reporters that these "qualified" products are better quality batteries separated from waste batteries, waiting for buyers to pick up the goods.
So, after the divisionWhere did the "unqualified" batteries go? Zhang Ming told reporters that each business has its own contact channels, just make a phone call, someone will pull the eliminated battery away, as to how to deal with the battery after pulling away, Zhang Ming is not clear. "Their recycling location is relatively hidden. It is not in Dongguan. I have never been there." Zhang Ming said, "Even if we find these processing points, we can't get in." He told reporters that dismantling waste power batteries will bring certain environmental pollution. Based on Dongguan's strict requirements for environmental protection, these recycling sites will not be located in the city.
When the reporter came to the second floor, the scene was different from that on the first floor. The venue here was divided into many lattice rooms by simple baffles. The reporter checked several through the crack of the door and found that they were also full of batteries, including mobile phone batteries and power batteries.
The scenes on the third, fourth and fifth floors are the same as those on the second floor. They are all divided into many small cubicrooms, which are filled with recycled batteries. Zhang Ming told reporters that each small cubby is a recycling company, and this building has about300 battery recycling companies, their business involves a variety of batteries, including power batteries, including mobile phone batteries.
What makes the reporter puzzled is that the chaos of scrapped battery recycling is inevitable, but why do so many illegal recycling companies breed in a city, and the number is far more than what the reporter saw? In this regard, perhaps we can learn a thing or two from Zhang Ming's answer. He said that many people used to run business in a battery recycling company, and when the business was ripe, they went out to work alone. Many of them did not have business licenses. In order to sell goods, they would also go to the companies they had worked before to issue invoices. As you can see, there'sThe "mature" market environment links "formal" with "informal", which breeds the soil suitable for the survival of all types of enterprises.
The reporter and Zhang Ming then went to another industrial park in the west of Dongguan City. This is a fully open park. You can see the shells of power battery packs scattered on the roadside and corners of the wall far away from the park. These shells are for both passenger cars and passenger cars. The number of factories here is more than that of another survey site visited by the above-mentioned reporter, and the scale of recycled batteries is also larger, and different from the previous survey sites, all of which are automotive power batteries.
Scattered storage points, busy demolition workers, the scene here is very lively. The reporter noticed that at each storage point, several workers sat around and sorted the batteries. They sorted the batteries in an orderly manner. Next to them were small nuts that were sorted, batteries with smooth shells, no wear at both ends, and battery cells with traces of leakage on the shells. The reporter looked at the brands of stacked batteries and found that almost all of the top power battery brands can be found here.
The reporter and Zhang Ming walked into the manager's office as buyers and learned from the conversation that they recycled the battery to look at the appearance, and the appearance was about good.10000 yuan/ton, about several thousand yuan per ton of product difference. The boss also said that as long as the business can be completed, Zhang Ming will be given a personal rebate.
■ Potential safety hazards that can be seen everywhere at dismantling points
In the past two years, spontaneous combustion incidents of electric vehicles have occurred from time to time, bringing life safety threats and property losses to consumers. A number of industry experts told reporters that the power battery cell contains a strong oxidant and a strong reducing agent, once out of control, the two will have a violent chemical reaction. Therefore, once the electric car and battery fire will be difficult to extinguish, the damage is very serious.
In the two industrial parks under investigation, reporters rarely saw fire-fighting facilities in the corridors and rooms where batteries were stacked, but occasionally saw sporadic portable fire extinguishers. The cubicle where the recycled batteries are stacked is one by one. In case of fire, the simple baffle between each recycling point can not prevent fire at all. If there is a problem with the batteries at a recycling point, the whole building will inevitably be burned down. And a large number of waste batteries stacked together, once the fire, there is a danger of explosion.
Sun Zhi, a researcher at the Institute of Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, once told reporters that in order to avoid secondary pollution from the recycled power battery, the dismantling process needs to go through multiple processes. Therefore, the dismantling equipment and manpower investment are relatively large. The development of new energy vehicles in China is not long, and automobile enterprises have experienced a period of exploration. Therefore, the early development of power batteries did not fully consider recycling, and the dismantling was more difficult.
However, the reporter did not see modern dismantling equipment at each recycling point, but only saw the workers wearing ordinary masks and gloves for dismantling. Drills, screwdrivers, pliers, etc. are commonly used dismantling tools for workers. The reporter saw that the screws on some battery packs were difficult to remove with a wrench due to the long installation time. The workers would use an electric drill to destroy the entire bolt and then remove the battery inside. This operation is obviously not standardized., Is not safe.
In the investigation of the visitIn the two industrial parks, the reporter did not see the standardized dismantling process, and the workers' dismantling was very arbitrary. According to data, the electrolyte of lithium batteries will decompose toxic gases. In the event of electrolyte leakage during the disassembly process, the workers are almost completely exposed to the decomposition gas, which will cause serious harm to the body.
In addition, the reporter also noticed that there is no sophisticated battery testing equipment at each recycling point. Even the multimeter that everyone is familiar with, the reporter did not see it at each recycling point. Zhang Ming told reporters that the recycled power batteries basically do not distinguish brands and are sold directly after simple sub-inspection, which has been the case for many years.
Industry insiders told reporters that different enterprises have different production processes, and the output voltage of batteries is also different. If they are not distinguished, even the simplest consistency cannot be guaranteed, which will inevitably cause certain safety hazards during use.
Where does the illegally recycled power battery flow?
So, in the industrial park after the battery will flow to where? Zhang Ming told reporters, mainly to electric bicycles and mobile phone charging treasure field. The reporter saw in Taobao that some charging treasures are cheap, while the charging treasure sold in brand flagship stores is several times higher. Zhang Ming told reporters that those cheap charging treasure almost all use recycled batteries.
In recent years, my country's electric bicycle industry has developed vigorously. Many electric bicycles have been replaced by lead-acid batteries with lithium batteries. The reason is that the driving range of lithium batteries is higher than that of lead-acid batteries. The replacement of lithium batteries has become a manufacturer to attract consumers. Propaganda point. Zhang Ming told reporters that some electric bicycle companies will use brand-new lithium batteries, but the cost will be relatively high, and the sales price will inevitably be higher. Most of the electric bicycle consumers belong to the working class and are more sensitive to the price. Some informal enterprises will use the method of recycling power batteries to reduce costs.
Recycled waste power batteries not only flow to the field of electric bicycles and mobile phone charging treasure, battery recycling industry veteran Zhao Qiang (pseudonym) told reporters that there are many illegally recycled batteries to the field of automotive power battery renovation. In a video shown to reporters by Zhao Qiang, several maintenance personnel skillfully removed the whole pack of power batteries and then replaced them with new battery packs."Born" a new power battery. Zhao Qiang told reporters that this new battery is assembled from recycled batteries.
Zhao Qiang told reporters that it is not an isolated case that the power battery is refurbished and reused for electric vehicles, but there are major problems in the consistency and safety of this battery.
■ Auctions are a source of chaos
The illegal recycling of arbitrary power batteries has brought trouble to the development of the industry. According to the statistics of high-level lithium battery,In 2018, the total scrap of power batteries in China reached 74000 tons. According to the data obtained by the reporter from relevant parties, five "white list" enterprises recycled and disposed of 5000 tons of retired batteries of new energy vehicles in 2018, and also disposed of 8000 tons of waste batteries and waste materials generated by power battery production enterprises and research and experimental units. In 2018, the recycling and disposal of decommissioned power batteries by the five companies accounted for only 6.76 percent of the high-tech lithium battery statistics. Even if the waste disposal capacity of battery companies is included, it only accounted for 17.57 percent of the total. This is not commensurate with the processing capacity of 250000 tons of five "white list" enterprises. More scrapped power batteries are flowing to informal channels.
So, how do a large number of retired power batteries flow to informal channels? Zhang Ming told reporters that the root cause lies in the auction."The waste power batteries in these recycling points are auctioned." Zhang Ming said.
However, what puzzles the reporter is that participating in the battery auction of vehicle enterprises needs to provide identification and qualification certificates. How can informal recycling points that do not have these capabilities participate in the auction? Zhang Ming's explanation is that the qualification certificate cannot be used by the person in charge of these recycling points. Business transactions between enterprises generally require the other party to provide photocopies of the enterprise's business license, qualification certificate and other materials. They can copy the materials of qualified enterprises to participate in the auction. The key is that the enterprises participating in the auction must have a good relationship with the auction personnel of the vehicle enterprises.
Zhang Ming further said that it is only necessary to check whether the name of the auction enterprise is consistent with the name of the paying enterprise. Some illegal recycling points borrow materials such as the qualifications of other enterprises to participate in the auction but it is impossible to pay with the accounts of other enterprises. Under normal circumstances, no one will go to the vehicle company to check the accounts and it is difficult to find cheating inside. Moreover, the auction principle of the enterprise is that the one with the highest price gets, so it will turn a blind eye to various reasons. The premise of this series of operations is that there are people inside the vehicle enterprise to cooperate, so that the recycling point can successfully photograph the waste power battery.
According to the prediction of China Automotive Technology Research Center Co., Ltd,The cumulative decommissioning of power batteries in China will reach 200000 tons (about 25GWh) in 2020 and about 780000 tons (about 116GWh) in 2025. The problem of recycling and disposal of decommissioned batteries will become more and more prominent, and the gray area will spread. If this "pain point" in the development of the industry is not effectively solved, it will definitely affect the healthy development of my country's new energy automobile industry.